CTF Hacking Glossary

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology is a physical sciences laboratory and non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.
SSH secure shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
Windows Terminal terminal application for command-line tools, and shells like command prompt, powershell and WSL.
WSL "windows subsystem for linux allows linux programs to run natively on Windows. WSL was designed by Microsoft in partnership with Canonical, the creators of Ubuntu. Together, they created a kernel compatibility layer based on Ubuntu."
Cygwin an SSH client program
Proxy Server server application or appliance that acts as an intermediary (indirect contact) for requests from clients seeking resources from servers that provide those resources
Triage a method that helps you respond faster and with more accuracy to security events
HTTP hypertext transfer protocol is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web to define how messages are formatted and transmitted and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. It is a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model.
Public key username
Private key passkey
ls command to list computer files in Unix or Unix-like operations.
cd change directory is a command-line shell command used to change the current working directory in various systems.
cat reads data from the file and gives their content as output. It helps us to create, view, concatenate files.
du command, short for disk usage, is used to estimate file space usage. The du command can be used to track the files and directories which are consuming excessive amount of space on hard disk drive.
find this command can show all files like a search function
file command classies each arguement to then display the file type
Change browser to incognito as default Properties > Shortcut > Append "[space]--incognito"
./- opens files that starts with a dashline
ls -al * displays sizes of all files including hidden ones
find -size 1033c to find the file
Server a piece of computer hardware or software (computer program) that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".This architecture is called the client-server model.
setuid set user id can allow a normal user to run a program with escalated priveleges such as root e.g. if a student runs a program from my profile
BASH bourne again shell
Shell an interpreter which can accept commands for a user and run them to perform operations such as navigating around a file system, running programs and interacting with devices.
.bashrc file a shell script which is run every time a user opens a new shell. This is a good place therefore to run commands that you want to run every single time you open a shell
grep global regular expression printer can search strings in a file
find ./ -size 33c -group bandit6 -user bandit7 finds exact group, owner and size in the entire server
/ the whole server
Learning curve declutter the problem first and sometimes tinker with the syntax
grep 'string' *.txt finds string within the file
cat data.txt | sort | uniq -u takes text, sorts the lines, and takes unique line of text
Pipelining | feeds the output from the program on the left as input to the program on the right
strings '*.txt' finds all strings in a file
Base64 binary to text encoding
string' | base64 to encode string into base64
"cat data.txt | tr '[A-Z]' '[N-ZA-M]' | tr '[a-z]' '[n -za-m]'" displays text > rotates set upper case A-Z to N-Z and set A-M to translate 13 times based on the index > do the same for small letters
ROT13 rotate by 13 places substitution cipher
Hexdump a hexadecimal view (on screen or paper) of computer data, from RAM or from a computer file or storage device.
mkdir make directory
man manual pages
cp copy
xxd -r data.txt decryption of hexdump text file
mv (source) (new file) used to re-format the filename to decompress
sample.gz gzip data format
sample.bz2 bzip2 data format
gzip -d sample.gz decompression
bz2 -d sample.bz2 decompression
sample.tar file format for POSIX tar archive (GNU)
tar -xvf sample.tar decompression
Telnet an application protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
Reverse Shells a type of shell in which the target machine communicates back to the attacking machine.
How to search in Man Page /String (forward slash, then input)
check commands on syntax, as it's case sensitive is a remote shell, where the connection is made from the system that offers the services to the client that wants to use these services.
echo returns input / command in linux is used to display line of text/string that are passed as an argument
RSA key RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. It is also one of the oldest. The acronym RSA comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977.


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